Arthralgia means pain in joint or pain in a joint.
The liver is not a part of the digestive tract, but it plays a vital role in digestion. It releases A substance called bile that helps to break down fat. The liver also stores excess fat for later use.
What is an electron and what keeps its mass and charge together so that when the mass moves, the charge moves with it?
Is critical mass the same for all fissionable materials?
A charge coupled device converts light (photonic energy) into electric energy. What is the underlying mechanism that makes this happen?
What is Symbiosis
- Living things that feed off other living things are called parasites.
- Living things that depend on each other to live are called symbiotic.
- Many tropical rainforest trees have a symbiotic relation with fungi on their roots. The fungi get energy from trees and return give the trees phosphorus and other nutrients.
- Leaf cutter ants cut up leaves and line their nests not far for themselves, but for the fungi which grow on the leaves. The ants eat the fungi.
- A phyte is a plant that grows high up on other plants.
- Epiphytes are plants that grow high up on other plants, especially in tropical rain forests.
- Saprophytes are plats and fungi that depend on decomposing material, not sunlight, for sustenance.
Post Tags: symbiosis, animals, what are symbiosis, symbiotic, plants, phyte, Epiphytes, Saprophytes
What is Radiation
- Radition is an actom’s way of getting rid of its excess energy.
- Particulate Radiation comes mainly from radio active substances such as radium, uranium and other heavy elements as they break down.
- Radiation is Measured in curies and becquerels.
- Bacteria can stand a radiation dose 10,000 times greater than the dose that would kill a human being.
- The natural radioactivity of a brazil nut is about six becuquerels (0.000000014 curies), which means six atoms in the nut break up every second.
The purpose of this lab is to learn how to prepare a wet mound, to learn proper staining techniques and to examine human cheek cells and onion skin cells.
It is predicted that all cells, no matter if it be plant or animal, will be in beside each other in large groups, that most of the major organelles will be visible through the microscope at 400X total magnification, the individual cells will be approximately 0.05mm in length/diameter..
- Microscope (with 40X, 100X and 400X magnification)
- Microscope Slides
- Cover slips
- Medicine dropper
- Iodine Stain
- Cheek cells
- Methylene blue stain
- Paper towels
- Onion Skin
For the Onion Skin Cell
- Peel off a small section of onion skin
- Place the onion skin in the centre of the slide
- Place the two drops of water on the onion skin. This is called a “wet mount”
- Starting at one edge, gently lower a cover slip over the onion skin
- Gently tap the slide with a pencil to remove any air bubbles
- Place a drop of iodine at one edge of the cover slip. Touch the opposite edge of the cover slip with a paper towel to draw the stain under the slip
- Place the slide on the stage under low power. Use the coarse adjustment knob to focus
- Rotate the nosepiece to medium power. Use the fine adjustment knob to focus. Observe what you see
- Repeat step 8, but this time switch to high power and draw what you see (use a pencil)
- After you draw your diagrams, rotate the nosepiece back to low power. Remove the slide and dispose of the piece of onion, and wash the slide and cover slip
For the Cheek Cell
- Take a clean toothpick and gently scrape the inside of your cheek
- Prepare a wet mount like in steps 2-6. Instead, use the methylene blue solution as the dye
When observing the onion skin cell, we noticed that the cells took on a brick-like structure and within the cells, small dots (the nuclei) can be seen. When we first looked into the microscope, the microscope’s total magnification was 40X so there were about a hundred rows of rectangular cells (see diagram provided), but as we changed magnifications, the number of cells in the field of view decreased.
When we viewed the onion skin cells at 400X total magnification, we noticed the nuclei of the cells looked clearer and larger and we were able to study the cell with more understanding than when we used the first magnification. The organelles that we were able to see in this type of cell were the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell wall. Unlike the onion skin cells, the cheek cells were more spread out from each other and they
all had a round shape. When we viewed the cheek cells at 40X total magnification, we noticed that the cells were secluded and spread out (see diagram provided). At 400X total magnification, we were only able to view one cell at a time, due to the fact that the cells were separated from each other. The organelles that were visible in this type of cell were the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane. Aside from the actual cells, we were able to see air bubbles within both the onion skin cell slide and the cheek cell slide.
Furthermore, my stated hypothesis is somewhat correct and incorrect. I stated that all cells will be together in a large group, but now I realize that the statement was incorrect. Only the plant cells were together in a large group. The animal cells, however, were secluded, thus
proving the statement wrong. Another statement that was incorrect was my estimation of the length/diameter. I stated that both the cells were about 0.05mm in length/diameter. Though it looked like the animal cell was slightly smaller, according to my calculations (diameter of FOV/# of times the object can fit across the FOV), the approximate length/diameter of the cells (both plant and animal) were 0.13mm. A correct statement in my hypothesis was that most of the important organelles are visible through the microscope. The important organelles that can be seen are the cell wall (for the plant cells), the cell membrane, the nucleus, and the cytoplasm. We can see those organelles due to the fact that they are the largest organelles in the cell and also due to the dye which brought them out. The final statement in my hypothesis was that the overall image will not be clear enough for further detail. This statement was correct because, other than the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the cell membrane/cell wall (for plants only), we cannot see any other organelle; the microscope simply didn’t have enough magnification to see them. Overall, I have learned that onion skin cells (plant cells) are rectangular and are always with other plant cells and cheek cells (animal cells) are circular and are secluded from each other, and that the smaller organelles cannot be seen with just our school microscope.
Knowing that certain cells are different from other cells is important in our world for many reasons. The cell is the most basic unit of life and knowing about it will help us answer many different questions. If someone knows about the cell and how it works they could find a way to counteract viruses and illnesses, thus creating medicine and a way to cure the virus or illness. Without knowledge of the cell, we wouldn’t know about how we get our energy, how we use our five senses or even how we exist. We should know about the cell because it helps us understand that every cell has an individual job to fulfill and those cells let us do what we can do now.
The cheek cell, an example of an animal cell, generally has a circular, oval shape. Due to the fact that the cheek cell was not in groups or clumps, the arrangement of this type of cell is unknown. From previous labs, I remember that the cells were pushed together completely; each cell fitted beside another cell perfectly and so on. The animal cell structure is the most prominent in human cheek cells. The onion skin cell, an example of an animal cell, generally has a rigid, rectangular shape. The onion skin cells were positioned beside each other (length touching length, width touching width) and formed a checkered pattern. Also, like the cheek cell, the onion skin cells were pushed together so that no spaces were in between. Two differences between a cheek cell and an onion skin cell are that the onion skin cells has the chloroplast and cell wall organelles while the cheek cell doesn’t and the general shape of the onion skin cell is a rectangle and the general shape of the cheek cell is an oval.
Perhaps no single act causes such strong emotions as the act of child sexual abuse. Child
molesters cannot even find refuge in prisons where rapists and murderers are commonplace. These offenders are shunned in every aspect of our society, yet there is no consensus as to the causes of this behavior.Sexual abuse of children is not new, and has not always been socially taboo. The ancient Greeks and Romans used children for sexual gratification(Langevin, 1983). In Greece, it was commonplace for adolescent males to be forced into sexual relationships with mature males. This behavior was normal and not objected to by the child’s parents nor the Greek government(Langevin, 1983). The Romans encouraged adolescent boys and girls not to protest
being sold into prostitution. The Roman government even went so far as to declare a public holiday honoring young prostitutes(Kahr, 1991).
Sex with children in the modern era is alive and well, the power of an older person is so great that their young victims often never tell of the horrors that they have endured. There is also a pedophile enhancement movement, with confessed pedophiles insisting that their behavior is not wrong or immoral. Organizations dedicated to the social acceptance of sex with children are not new, yet have had a large upstart in membership since the early 1970′s(Charon, 1979).
Because of the extreme sensitivity of the subject, research in this field is quite underdeveloped.
Researchers have even had trouble in agreeing what to call the phenomenon. Much research on the victims has dubbed the act as child sexual abuse, most research on the offenders has labeled it as child molesting or pedophilia. The term pedophilia has some utility since it suggests a predisposition for the act separate from the act itself. The ambiguity of this term however, is what causes confusion. Pedophilia can mean child sexual abuse ranging from an arousal to children with no or little action, to sexual penetration of the child. For the purposes of this paper the terms pedophilia, child sexual abuse, and child molestation will be used interchangeably.
CLASSIFICATION OF PEDOPHILES
Pedophile classification is a hotly debated topic that varies significantly in it’s origins. There are a few standards however, pedophiles can be separated by those who sexually abuse members of there own family or step-families, and those who abuse non-family members(Langevin, 1983). Even this simple distinction is not always accurate though, often familial offenders have
Conditioned Response Theorypreviously offended non-family members(Hunter, 1990). Some common causes of pedophilia have found much popular and scholarly support, and these etiologies can give a general profile of some of the origins of child sexual abuse. While the names of these etiologies vary greatly, the descriptions of each remain essentially intact.
Some researchers have maintained that the pedophile becomes conditioned to respond to young, sexually under-developed bodies. It has been suggested that boys begin masturbating to fantasies that involve sexually immature bodies, and then become so conditioned to these images that they need them to create sexual gratification(McGuire, Carlisle, & Young, 1965). Garland and Dougher(1990) theorized two reasons for this behavior leading to the development of and (2) through memory distortions that have occur with the passage of time, the child or adolescent who was sexually victimized by an adult developed a fantasy that places him or her in the role of the aggressor rather than in the role of the victim. As a result of this recurrent fantasy, he or she then becomes sexually conditioned to respond to children.
Learned behavior closely resembles the conditioned response theory. Pedophilia as a learned behavior is due to sexual abuse of the abuser as a child. The pedophile then begins to imitate this behavior later in life(Groth, Hobson, and Gary, 1982).
Social skills that have been underdeveloped or dysfunctional social skills have been suggested as a possible explanation for pedophilia, especially relating to persons of the opposite sex. Segal and Marshall(1985) compared rapists, child molesters, non-sexual offenders, and two control groups on social skill ability. The researchers based their social skill ratings based on taped conversations with females and found that all offender groups were less socially competent than the control groups. The child molesters were less skilled at predicting and evaluating their own performance in heterosexual situations. Interacting with children may give the pedophile a feeling of control and reduce anxiety(Langevin, 1983).
Pedophilia has often been linked with previous emotional, physical, or sexual trauma. This trauma becomes so painful that it results in underdevelopment or a stifling of future development(Groth, Hobson, and Gary,1982). According to this line of reasoning this underdevelopment will not allow a person to mature emotionally as his or her body matures. The pedophile is the emotional equivalent of a child, and thus depends on them and begins to view them as sexual objects as well(Langevin, 1983). Using children in a sexual manner to cope with anxiety is reinforced and becomes a normal behavior pattern.
Pedophilia as an Addiction
Pedophilia as an addiction is a fairly new way of examining this type of behavior. In the early 1980′s researchers began to ask questions about pedophiliacs’ behavior and found that parallels could be drawn between this and other addictive behaviors. Patrick Carnes(1983) developed a model of sexual addiction to explain the behaviors of sexual abusers. Carnes suggested that molestation of children is a sexual addiction. He stated that the addict moves through a four-stage process, with each step becoming more addictive.
Preoccupation is the first stage in Carnes’ model. The addict is unable to think about anything else except sex. The addict begins to seek experiences to satisfy their desires. Ritualization is the second stage, in which the addict will engage in specific behaviors that culminate in sexually acting out behaviors. Compulsive behavior is the third stage, which is the sex act. The fourth and final stage is despair. This is when the addict realizes that there is a lack of control over the compulsive behaviors.
Carnes suggested three separate levels of addiction within this model. Level one addicts are associated with pornography, compulsive masturbation, repeatedly engaging in purely sexual relationships with no other meaning, and prostitution. Level two behaviors include illegal sexual acts with another person being victimized emotionally, but not physically(exhibition, voyeurism). Level three behavior includes rape, incest, and pedophiliac behavior.
The feminist theory argues that children are easy targets for sexual abuse by mature males because of the emphasis that our society puts on the male being the dominant, powerful, and controlling partner in intimate relationships(Hite, 1981). Males, on the other hand tend to search out sexual partners who are “younger, smaller, and weaker than themselves”(Finkelhor and Araji, 1986, p. 149).
Child pornography and advertising have been targeted by some feminists as having a role in the onset of pedophilia(Rush, 1980). The reasoning for these beliefs are based on the assumption that viewing pornography eroticizes children, and teaches adolescents to become aroused by children.
Pedophilia within the family, or incest is usually found in families where the family unit is rigid and lacking any guidelines or boundaries(Will, 1983). Families in which incest occurs are both physically and socially isolated from the community in which they live. Family members depend only on one another for their needs and rarely seek outside assistance for anything. Frequently the child is forced to grow up quickly and assume the role of caretaker within the family. This caretaking role is then pushed beyond conventional limits to include the physical needs of an adult within the family. The needs of the child are given very little recognition by the parents.
Families have been classified into two general types of units in which incest is more likely to occur. These include the “Chaotic family” and the “normal-appearing” family(Kempe and Kempe, 1984). The chaotic family is typically of low socioeconomic status; is dysfunctional in that the family members have histories of substance abuse, incarceration, violence, and most members have very little or no education. Children raised within family units such as this are more likely to become targets of interfamilial sexual abuse.
The “normal-appearing ” family gives off the impression that everything is perfectly normal. Frequently the parents have been married for years, are financially secure, and have established roles within the community(Kempe & Kempe, 1984). Incestuous parents in this type of family are often unable to care for their children our themselves, either emotionally or physically. They are usually quite needy and turn to their children to fulfill those needs. Incest in this type of family is especially troublesome since even if it is reported, a conviction is unlikely without solid physical proof. The adult is an fine upstanding member of the community in their eyes. Often the authorities will side with the adult and punish the child for these attempts to bring pain upon their parents(Kempe & Kempe, 1984).
In both the “chaotic” and the “normal-appearing” families, incest is often carried on from one generation to another. This phenomenon has been dubbed the intergenerational transmission of incest(Kempe & Kempe, 1984).