Telephones, computers and internet are used for communication. Machines are used in the different stages for making the jewellery. Steel wax carvers, files, hand gravers, burs, drills, heat are used for waxing to make the design, then the sprue used for melting the wax to escape during burn-out and later for molten gold to enter during casting. The investment flask is a round cylindrical steel tube, similar to a tin can open at both ends used to attached the sprued wax to a rubber base and the mold is used for casting. The flask is placed in a casting machine and the gold is melted in a crucible with a torch.