The ground is the substrate on which the moving support or many organisms. The set of relationships between the soil and the various organisms that inhabit the soil ecosystem form, consisting of a biotope and a living community or biocenosis.
The biotope soil has the following characteristics:
– The temperature is more stable than in the air environment.
– The floor (except the surface layer) is an environment devoid of light .
– The infiltration of rain washing determines the horizon minerals, depositing them in deeper layers.
– The atmospheric air that penetrates into the spaces between the solid particles of the soil is necessary for respiration of living organisms groundwater.
– The concentration of mineral salts depends upon the activity of decay organisms and chemical weathering.
The soil community is made up of:
-The green plants that convert inorganic part of soil organic matter and roots with erosive action performed in the bedrock. in addition, the roots retain fine soil particles.
– The organisms (mostly insects, annelids, bacteria and fungi) that feed on organic matter formed by green plants, bacteria and fungi, and transform organic waste (carcasses, excrement, etc..) in inorganic materials .
– The underground creatures of habit (earthworms, moles, ants, etc..), they dig tunnels in the ground.