The terrestrial biomes are areas within biogeographical regions, each with a predominant vegetation and fauna. The most characteristic terrestrial biomes are tundra, taiga, deciduous forest, the Mediterranean forest, prairie, desert and jungle.
The tundra is a biome found in arctic and alpine areas of some mountain peaks characterized by very low average temperatures. Because the ground is frozen all year, there is no water infiltration and plant roots are short. Only thaws and becomes waterlogged the soil surface during the short summer period.
The vegetation, which has very little height, consists of mosses, lichens and some herbs. Upon reaching the cold period, many animals, such as reindeer, arctic hare, lemming and polar bear, migrate to the taiga.
The taiga is a biome found in Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, Siberia and subalpine parts of the mountains. Average temperatures are low, the snow is abundant precicpitación and summer is warm and humid.
The characteristic vegetation is represented by coniferous forests (spruce, fir), under which are understory shrubs (heathers, blueberries, etc..)
Conifers (pine, fir, etc..), The birches, the lilnces, wolves, arctic hares, etc., Are the most abundant living taiga.
The deciduous forest
The deciduous forest is a biome that occurs in temperate oceanic climate with a cold season (winter), a warm (summer) and abundant rainfall (Central Europe).
The dominant vegetation consists caducifoliios trees (deciduous), whose leaves form a mulch over the plants that grow low-rise and fungi that feed on plant debris.
The abundant deciduous oak, beech and chestnut, as well as bears, foxes, squirrels, cats, insects of many kinds, etc..
The Mediterranean forest and scrubland
The Mediterranean forest and scrub occur in regions with a Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot, dry summer and a mild winter and dry seasons.
The trees (oaks, cork) leaves usually have thick skin to prevent excessive loss of water, give the dry atmosphere.
In the forest and the abundant Mediterranean scrub oaks, cork oaks, strawberry trees and bushes, including live rabbits, reptiles, insects, squirrels, wild boars and birds. This biome is typically used by many migratory birds as a stopover.
The grassland is a biome that occurs in regions of irregular and intermittent rainfall. The vegetation develops in spring and summer withers. The stratum is the most abundant herbaceous, consisting mainly of grasses and some scattered trees and shrubs. The climate is hot and dry in summer and cold in winter.
The meadows are typical of the interior of continents, such as Africa ( savanna ), United States, Argentina and Russia (steppes). The dominant vegetation consists of grasses. There are also scattered trees and shrubs, and the fauna is represented by the horse, gazelle, antelope, bison, lion, etc..
The desert is a biome found in regions with extreme temperature changes and great low rainfall. Because of this, organisms have adaptations to water retention. Many vegetables have a short lifecycle to leverage small rainy periods. The animals usually have nightlife and get water from plants xerophytes. There are hot deserts (Sahara, Arizona), high medium heat and cold deserts (Mongolia), lower average temperature. In deserts only xerophytic plants such as cacti, and animals such as camels, hyenas, dogs, desert rats, reptiles and scorpions.
The equatorial forest or virgin forest
The virgin forest is a terrestrial biome that occurs in tropical regions characterized by high rainfall evenly distributed, high average temperatures and abundant light in the top tier.
The flora and fauna are highly stratified.
Tree species are very high, and many of them are epiphytes and climbers. They are also very abundant shrubs and herbs. Animals have many adaptations: arboreal amphibians, climbers, etc..