Comments about the cultivation of soursop

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Where I can plant soursop?
guanabana, grows well between 500 and 1200 meters above sea level. The ideal temperature can be between 25 to 28 degrees Celsius, brother temperatures drop below los12 degrees, are

cultivo-guanabana[1]

defoliation, damage to branches and difficulties in bloom. The soursop  strives well in areas where rainfall is between 800-1000 mm per year well distributed, the relative humidity should be above 80% for a good natural pollination and therefore good fruit production. Recommended soil for planting soursop should have a pH between 5.5 and 6.5, should be deep, good physical properties. In clay soils, they should consider doing good drainage, the best are the Franks.

What is the propagation system?
Most farmers, including modern technology, preferring to establish their gardens with trees from seeds. Very few clones established crops propagated by grafting.Propagation by seed can have a wide variability that gives security to support a pest or disease at a given time, but this variability, produces low-yielding trees, various fruit qualities that cause differential pricing in the market, while plantations established propagated by grafting trees, allow to have a more uniform production and quality, but there is a risk of susceptibility to pests and diseases. Therefore it is advisable to plant propagation by grafting but between 3 or 4 clones on a plantation.

 

What is the proper planting distance?
For example the distances used in planting more crops technified Cauca Valley range from 10 × 10. 100 trees per hectare, 9 × 9 for a total of 121 trees / ha

When production starts soursop culture?
When thinking soursop set a culture should consider each of the stages including: Seed: soursop seeds germinate between 28 to 30 days with good moisture conditions .Nursery: plants can remain in the nursery between 4-6 months when the trees can be transplanted to the field. When propagated by grafting, trees must have a stem diameter of about one centimeter to about 20 centimeters from the ground, there to make the graft can be per patch or pua terminal. Grafted trees will be ready for field set 3-5 after grafted. After established trees in field with good agronomic management, the first blooms appear about 18 months. Since the appearance of floral primordia until the mature takes approximately from 9.5 to 12 months.

How should I fertilize a soursop tree?
guanabana, consumes 2.95 kg of nitrogen, 2.5 kg of potassium, phosphorus 0.5 kg, 0.98 kg and 0.15 kg of calcium. Magnesium per ton of fruit produced. Some authors recommend applying per tree each year: Urea: 74-107 gr. – DAP: 100-126 gr. – K2O: 115-130 gr. – MnSO4: 8.5-11gr. – ZnSO4: 7.5-8.5 gr. – Borax: 6.5-8 gr. These applications should be split every two months according to the phenological development of the crop. Apply fertilizer in holes in the plate shaft.

What are the crop water needs?
For proper soursop crop development in the development stage must have an average of 20-50 liters of water per day, in the production stage, it takes on average 50 – 100 liters per day.

How is the handling of pruning?
For good development and growth of the trees is convenient to perform pruning. There are three types of pruning: Pruning training is a type of pruning that can be shaped or tree architecture depends on each farmer. There are farmers who prefer to leave the tree to free growth to 2.5-3.0 m high, where they cut the growing point or main stem, other farmers avoid the side branches in the basal part of the tree, leaving a single central axis to the same height when castrate the tree. Maintenance pruning: is to remove branches or shoots, unproductive, sick or dead. Also cut the branches or shoots that are above 2,5-3.0 m. Reovación Pruning: consists of cutting the tree in full at a defined height when it is too old, too sick or too high.

What are the main pests of soursop?
when the foliage is tender, it is common sucking, eating foliage and are of economic importance, especially when the trees are in the growth stage. The gauges or loopers which larval, foliage consumed can become an obstacle and can be controlled with biological products based on Bacillus thuringiensis. Other foliage eaters are Hylesia Sp, sp Leucopthera, Sabulodes Platinota Sp and Sp are also found leafhopper Empoasca called lace bugs Sp Sp soft scale Corytrucha Philephedra tuberculosis causing damage soursop tree foliage. In the main pest flower called ortignus key. In the state are limiting fruit moth small punch Cercanota Sp why must bagging the fruits in small. For the control of various pests we recommend the use of systemic or pyrethroids when presented high levels of the pest.

 What are the limiting diseases in soursop?
The main disease is known in soursop anthracnose which attacks any part of the plant. In fruits cause blackening and mummification of these, causing dry rot. The pathogen causing the disease is known as Colletotrichum gloesporiodes. This disease causes neurotic spots or dead zones. When the attacks are severe, defoliation of the tree is presented. In flowers is presented from the button initially affecting the base of the flower known as sepals reaching completely invade the flower fall causing this. The control is based on management preventive pruning branches with infected preventative applications of fungicides based carbendazin, benomyl, mixed with products based protectates mancozeb, copper oxychloride. Another disease found in soursop is called white spot caused by Cercospora anonnae. In initial states occurs with both black dots as the beam on the underside of the sheet when grown are rounded and leave a white center in the center of the lesion. Control of this disease is done with the same products used to actracnosis.

How do you define the maturity of the soursop?
when the fruit reaches its normal development, according to material characteristics sown, it reaches physiological maturity, in which the fruit is ripening on the tree or be harvested after . This maturity is different from consumer maturity, which is reached when the fruit is soft, with good aroma. The soursop is advisable to harvest it jecha state and subject it to environmental changes that make a good maturity for a good final product.

How much can produce a soursop tree?
A soursop tree under optimum agronomic management, can produce up to 250 kilos per year. Overall a soursop tree begins production on average at 18 to 24 months after planting in the field. This year the production per tree could be of 6-10 kilos, in the third year may be between 20 and 30 kg, in the fourth year and 60-65 kilos in the fifth year may reach 100 kilos, in the sixth 140, up to ten years with production exceeding 200 kilos per tree.

How do we harvest the soursop?
important thing to reap the benefits of soursop, is to obtain a high quality product and cause no damage to trees. To reap the benefits should take into account aspects such as:-Reaping the fruits pruner floral cushion underneath, not pluck the fruit from the tree, can damage the floral cushion. -Use when very high ladder. – To transport the fruits in baskets or baskets on horses, mules or carts from the lot to the winery. -Disinfect fruits using sodium hypochlorite 3-5 cc / liter of water. -When the fruits are fully ripe, place them in a place with temperatures between 22 and 25 degrees Celsius.-For transporting the fruit out of the hold is usually done in plastic baskets.

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