Ergonomics can be defined as the application of scientific principles in the development and design of objects and environments for human activity. This is reflected in the etymology of the word “ergo” and “nomos” or “activity” and “standards” or refers to those rules or natural principles governing the activities of man. It is a range of skills involving people from multiple disciplines to conduct studies concerning the conduct and activities of people in their workplaces. These studies are based on being able to tailor products, jobs, machines and systems to the real needs of people. Thus, it is possible to improve the conditions and effectiveness of people, improving safety and health in the workplace.
The ergonomics comes from the needs and conditions which arise from the increased mechanization. In other words, arises because the machines perform more tasks every day, having to streamline the functions of its operators, demanding far greater physical effort, which over time, causes a burnout very detrimental to the health of workers, and also for the production company. Thus, the study appears as the ergonomics of the work environment to improve their conditions, adjusting their positions and machinery, promoting good posture and healthy and safe behaviors. Otherwise, wear as well as causing dangerous accidents, produces among other consequences, severe back pain as well as neck. Besides inflammation occurs wrists, legs and arms.
An example of the work done by ergonomists is precisely calculate the height of the table where a person works so that it should not lean too far to work, thus avoiding primarily disorders of the neck and back.
The basic idea of ergonomists is to make the workstation, implements the machinery and worker fits instead of the opposite situation, which occurs in most cases, which is the worker who must adapt to machinery with which he works. The more modern vein of this study is given in the field of computing, which are increasingly common cases of tendinitis as a result of using the keyboard and mouse.
|What is ergonomics?|
|Ergonomics is the science that studies how to adjust the relationship between human beings and their environment, according to the official definition of the Council of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA, for its acronym in English) adopted in August 2000. One of its branches, physical ergonomics, studying the most suitable positions to perform household chores and jobs, for handling loads and materials and repetitive movements, among others.|
Therefore, the right of workers to regular monitoring of their health status in terms of the risks inherent in their jobs has been guaranteed by the Cuban revolutionary government.
Speaking of ergonomics is to talk about how to work, not only embraces the convenience, but also safety at work, what is the proper quipo to work, etc.. Not least use the name of ergonomics , as it comes from the Greek roots ergos meaning “work” and “nomos” meaning “law or laws.” Thus, the term ergonomics literally means “labor laws” as applied science proper and efficient performance of the job. They are problems of the new millennium, or century, annoyances such as “carpal tunnel evil” or “elbow programmer”, as these evils have been caused by this “double-edged sword” that the same man has endeavored to develop : the computer , the epitome of the largest scientific and technological progress of mankind.
Occupational health is a science that seeks to protect and enhance the physical, mental, social and spiritual conditions in their jobs, a positive impact on the company.
The ergonomics and risk factors in occupational health should be periodically assessed at each working place through periodic checks of workers who habitually and systematically use computers.
Adequate and friendly environments reduce negative health consequences, by complying with the regulations relating to occupational health risks at work.
Nurses should educate workers in workplaces, in relation to changes in work style, thus avoiding the occurrence of diseases.
“The goal of ergonomics is to design the workplace so that suits human capacities to prevent problems such as injuries,” says the American Association of Industrial Hygiene.According to the association, the ergonomic handles all the physical aspects that can affect the employee’s work environment, cleanliness and hygiene, industrial safety, etc..
In recent days, experts have focused on the study of certain injuries, especially by working long hours at the computer, to “prevent lamentarlas before.”
It is very common to find lesions in specific areas of the body, the worst sufferers are: eyes, neck, wrists and hands.
Ergonomics is basically an application technology and interdisciplinary practice, based on scientific research, which aims at comprehensive optimization of Human-Machine System, which will always be composed of one or more human beings fulfill any task using one or more “machines” (defined with the generic term for all types of tools, proper industrial machines, vehicles, computers, appliances, etc..). Saying comprehensive optimization we mean obtaining a systemic structure (and corresponding dynamic behavior), for each set of men and machines interacting, simultaneously and conveniently meets three basic criteria:
* Participation: human beings in terms of technological creativity, management, compensation, comfort and psychosocial roles.
* Production: in everything it does to the effectiveness and efficiency of the system productive Men-Machines (in short: productivity and quality).
* Protection: Subsystems of Man (industrial safety and occupational health) of the Subsystems Machine (accidents, failures, breakdowns, etc..) and the environment (collective security, ecology, etc..)